See also: Bio Art: Transgenic works and other living pieces

Selected Bibliography

Uirapuru (1996/99), by Eduardo Kac, was shown from October 15 to November 28, 1999, at the InterCommunication Center (ICC), Tokyo. A flying fish hovers above a forest in the gallery, responding to local as well as Web-based commands. Audio and video from its point of view are streamed on the Web. Local and remote participants interact with the avatar of the flying fish in a virtual world. When this happens the flying fish sings in the gallery. "Pingbirds" (robotic birds) sing Amazonian bird songs in the gallery in response to the rhythm of Internet traffic. Pingbirds monitor the rhythm of the Internet by sending ping commands to a server in the Amazon. This work unites telepresence, multi-user virtual reality, and networking into a single realm of experience.
Darker Than Night (1999), by Eduardo Kac, was shown from June 16 to July 9, 1999, in a bat cave at the Blijdorp Zoological Gardens in Rotterdam, in the context of the exhibition "Fables of a Technological Era" curated by Antoinette te Paske and Nathalie Houtermans. This is a telepresence artwork which explores the human-robot-animal interface as a means of mediating relations of empathy. In this interactive piece, participants, a telerobotic bat (batbot) and over 300 Egyptian Fruit Bats share a cave and become aware of their mutual presence through sonar emissions and frequency conversions.
Time Capsule (1997), by Eduardo Kac, was realized on November 11, 1997, at Casa das Rosas, a cultural center in São Paulo, Brazil. It approached the problem of wet interfaces and human hosting of digital memory through the implantation of a microchip. The work consisted of a microchip implant, seven sepia-toned photographs, a live televison broadcast, a webscast, interactive telerobotic webscanning of the implant, a remote database intervention, and additional display elements, including an X-ray of the implant. It was in the context of this wok that Kac coined the term "Bio Art".

Collection Beep / Data Logic, Reus, Spain.
A-positive (1997), a biobotic work by Eduardo Kac and Ed Bennett, was experienced on September 24, 1997, at Gallery 2, in Chicago. In A-positive a dialogical exchange between a human being and a robot took place through two intravenous hookups.
The Telepresence Garment (1995/96), by Eduardo Kac, was first experienced in the context of the IV St. Petersburg Biennial, Russia, 1996. Apparel and apparatus merge in this networked interactive article of clothing.

Collection Instituto Valenciano de Arte Moderno (IVAM), Valencia, Spain.
Teleporting An Unknown State (1994/96), an interactive biotelematic work by Eduardo Kac linking the Contemporary Art Center, in New Orleans, to the Internet (August 4-August 9, 1996). In this work actual photosynthesis and growth of a living organism took place through the Internet. Edition of 2.

Collection Sprint Nextel, Overland Park, Kansas (1/2).
Rara Avis (1996), a telepresence work by Eduardo Kac linking Nexus Contemporary Art, in Atlanta, to the Internet through three protocols: CU-SeeMe, the Web, and the MBone (June 28-August 24, 1996). In this work local and remote participants experienced a large aviary from the point of view of a telerobotic macaw.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1994), a live, bi-directional, interactive, telematic, inter-species sonic biotelematic work created by Kac with Ikuo Nakamura between Lexington (KY), and New York. This piece, which promotes dialogue between a bird and plant, was presented publicly from October 21 to November 11, 1994, simultaneously at the Center for Contemporary Art, University of Kentucky, Lexington, and the Science Hall, in New York.
Dialogical Drawing (1994), Eduardo Kac, 1994. What is the condition of the art object in the age of networking and telematics? This piece addresses this question by giving precedence to the mutuality of a relationship over form and composition.
The Ornitorrinco Project (1989-1996). Eduardo Kac pioneered telepresence art in 1986, when he created his first wireless robot, a remote-controlled anthropomorphic figure through which human participants could engage in conversation (see below). In 1989 Kac developed with Ed Bennett the telerobot Ornitorrinco, and with it a series of telepresence works -- including the first wireless telerobotic artwork on the Internet, in 1994.

RC Robot (1986). Participants interacted with one another remotely through a 7-feet tall anthropomorphic robot.

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